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  1. Education Week, “Quality Counts 2016: State Report Cards Map,” December 30, 2015.
  2. Ken Schlager, “Chatham Reigns as the Top High School in New Jersey,” New Jersey Monthly, September 2016.
  3. National Institute for Early Education Research, “Fact Sheet: The Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal EffectStudy (APPLES), 2013.”
  4. State of New Jersey Department of Education: History of Funding Equity Archives.
  5. Robinson v. Cahill (Robinson V) [69 N.J. 449 (1976)]; Robinson v. Cahill (Robinson VI) [70 N.J. 155 (1976)]; Abbott v. Burke (Abbott IV) [149 N.J. 145 (1997)]; Abbott v. Burke (Abbott V) [153 N.J. 480 (1998)].
  6. Colleen O’Dea, “Interactive Map: New Jersey Graduation Rate Inches Up for Class of 2016,” NJ Spotlight, January 13, 2017. John Mooney, “Putting the Latest PARCC Results in Perspective,” NJ Spotlight, July 27, 2017.
  7. Gary Orfield et al., “Brown at 62: School Segregation by Race, Poverty and State,” UCLA Civil Rights Project, May 16, 2016. Greg Flaxman et al., “A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010,” October 11, 2013.
  8. Robinson v. Cahill (Robinson I), 62 N.J. 473 (1973).
  9. Abbott v. Burke (Abbott IV), 149 N.J. 145 (1997).
  10. Abbott v. Burke (Abbott V), 153 N.J. 480 (1998).
  11. Education Law Center, “Linking Standards to Resources: New Jersey’s School Funding Reform Act of 2008,” March 2014.
  12. Margaret E. Goertz and Michael Weiss, “Assessing Success in School Finance Litigation: The Case of New Jersey,” Education, Equity and the Law No. 1, November 2009, p 5.
  13. Barbara Smey-Richman, “New Jersey NAEP: Overview and Key Results,” December 20, 2007.
  14. School Funding Reform Act of 2008.
  15. Abbott v. Burke (Abbott XX), 199 N.J. 140 (2009), p 41-44.
  16. Education Law Center: Preschool Data.
  17. Abbott v. Burke XX, 199 N.J. 140 (2009), p 41.
  18. Abbott v. Burke (Abbott XXI), 206 N.J. 332 (2011), p 25.
  19. Abbott v. Burke (Abbott XXI), 206 N.J. 332 (2011).
  20. Education Law Center: School Funding Data.
  21. John Mooney, “Despite Budget Drama and Deadlock, School Funding Changes Survive,” NJ Spotlight, July 5, 2017. Education Law Center, “New Jersey Begins Long Road Back to Fair School Funding,” July 26, 2017.
  22. Augenblick, Palaich and Associates, “Analysis of New Jersey’s Census-Based Special Education Funding System,” October 2011, p 48.
  23. Abbott v. Burke (Abbott V), 153 N.J. 480 (May 1998), p 8-9.
  24. Cynthia Rice, “Keeping the Promise of Preschool for New Jersey’s Children,” Advocates for Children of New Jersey, February 2013.
  25. W. Steven Barnett et al., “Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study: Fifth Grade Follow-Up,” National Institute for Early Education Research, March 20, 2013.
  26. Anthony P. Carnevale, Nicole Smith, and Jeff Strohl, “Recovery, Job Growth, and Education Requirements through 2020 State Report,” Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce, June 2013, p 71.
  27. Lumina Foundation A Stronger Nation Database: New Jersey Progress Toward the Goal.
  28. New Jersey’s The Governor’s Higher Education Council Newsletter “Increasing College Attainment,” April 4, 2016.
  29. State of New Jersey Office of the Secretary of Higher Education, Office of Research and Accountability Student Unit Record: Enrollment- Fall by Level and Attendance Status, 2016, 1996.Progress Toward the Goal.
  30. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities’ calculations for Michael Mitchell, Michael Leachman, and Kathleen Masterson, “A Lost Decade in Higher Education Funding State Cuts Have Driven Up Tuition and Reduced Quality,” August 22, 2017, Figure 2. using Illinois State University, College of Education: Grapevine Data Summary Tables.; The College Board: Trends in Pricing Archive.; State of Higher Education Executive Officers Association: State Higher Education Finance Data.; and Bureau of Labor Statistics: Consumer Price Index.
  31. Michael Mitchell, Michael Leachman, and Kathleen Masterson, “A Lost Decade in Higher Education Funding State Cuts Have Driven Up Tuition and Reduced Quality,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, August 22, 2017, Figure 2.
  32., “What are the changes of a freshman graduating in 4 years at N.J. colleges?” May 4, 2016.
  33. New Jersey Governor’s Higher Education Council Newsletter “Increased Student Completion in New Jersey Community Colleges,” May 29, 2016. It should be noted that 16% of students at community colleges transferred to another institution.
  34. New Jersey Council of County Colleges: Center for Student Success.
  35. New Jersey Constitution.; Booker v. Board of Education of City of Plainfield, 45 N.J. 161, 212 A.2d 1 (1965).; and Jenkins v. Morris Township School District, 58 N.J. 483, 279 A.2d 619 (1971).
  36. New Jersey Constitution.
  37. Gary Orfield, Jongyeon Ee, and Ryan Coughlan, “New Jersey’s Segregated Schools: Trends and Paths Forward,” UCLA Civil Rights Project/Derechos Civiles, 2017.
  38. Ibid.
  39. Gary Orfield and Erica Frankenberg, With Jongyeon Ee and John Kuscera, “Brown at 60: Great Progress, a Long Retreat and an Uncertain Future,” The Civil Rights Project, UCLA, May 15, 2014.
  40. Richard Rothstein, “The Urban Poor Shall Inherit Poverty,” The American Prospect, January 7, 2014.
  41. Paul Tractenberg, Gary Orfield, and Greg Flaxman, “New Jersey’s Apartheid and Intensely Segregated Urban Schools: Powerful Evidence of an Inefficient and Unconstitutional State Education System,” Institute on Education Law and Policy, Rutgers Newark and Civil Rights Project, UCLA, October 2013.
  42. Richard Rothstein, The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America, May 2017.
  43. South Burlington County. NAACP v. Township. of Mount. Laurel, 336 A.2d 713 (1975).
  44. Southern Burlington County NAACP v. Mount Laurel Township, 67 N.J. 151 (1975).; Southern Burlington County NAACP v. Township of Mount Laurel, 92 N.J. 158 (1983).
  45. John Hasse, John Reiser, Alexander Pichacz, “Evidence of Persistent Exclusionary Effects of Land Use Policy within Historic and Projected Development Patterns in New Jersey: A Case Study of Monmouth and Somerset Counties,” Rowan University Geospatial Research Laboratory, June 2011.
  46. Roslyn Arlin Mickelson, “School Integration and K-12 Outcomes: An Updated Quick Synthesis of the Social Science Evidence,” National Coalition on School Diversity, October 2016.
  47. Richard D. Kahlenberg and Halley Potter, “The Original Charter School Vision,” New York Times, August 30, 2014.
  48. Ibid.
  49. Rucker C. Johnson, “Long-Run Impacts of School Desegregation & School Quality on Adult Attainments,” National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2011.
  50. Rucker C. Johnson, “The Grandchildren of Brown: The Long Legacy of School Desegregation,” Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, 2012.
  51. Genevieve Siegel-Hawley, “How Non-Minority Students Also Benefit from Racially Diverse Schools,” National Coalition on School Diversity, October 2012, p 2.

  52. U.S. Department of Education, “Innovations in Education: Creating Successful Magnet School Programs,” 2004.
  53. U.S. News and World Report: “Best High Schools in New Jersey.”
  54. Sheff v. O’Neill, 238 Conn. 1, 678 A.2d 1267 (1999).
  55. Genevieve Siegel-Hawley and Erica Frankenberg, “Research Brief 6: Magnet School Student Outcome: What the Research Says,” The National Coalition on School Diversity, 2011.
  56. John Mooney, “NJ’s School-Choice Program might be too popular for Its own good,” NJ Spotlight, November 27, 2013.
  57. The National Coalition on School Diversity, “Issue Brief 3: Recommendations for Choice Program Provisions in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act,” April 2011.